The globin gene family is an example. Expressed as a proportion between 0 and 1 or percentage between 0 and percent. More generally, the genetic profile of an individual. The phrase "species name" generally refers to the genus and species together, as in the Latin name for humans, Homo sapiens. The embryonic shoot plumule and embryonic root radicle emerge and grow upward and downward, respectively.
All cells in an organism can be divided into the soma the cells that ultimately die and the germ cells the cells that are perpetuated by reproduction. In humans gestation is known as pregnancy and takes about nine months 40 weeks. Gingerich, Philip: Gingerich is interested in evolutionary change documented in the fossil record and how this relates to the kinds of changes observable in the field or laboratory on the scale of a few generations.
His ongoing fieldwork in Wyoming, Egypt, and Pakistan is concerned with the origin of modern orders of mammals, especially primates and whales. Glaciation of the continents marks the beginning of ice ages, when the makeup of Earth and organisms on it changes dramatically. Goldfarb is piloting a program in the Russian prison system to combat the further evolution of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis, which have infected at least 30, inmates.
A paleontologist and an evolutionary biologist, he teaches geology and the history of science, as well.
With others, he has advanced the concept that major evolutionary changes can occur in sudden bursts rather than through the slow, gradual process proposed by the traditional view of evolution. In addition to his scholarly works, Gould has published numerous popular books on paleoanthropology, Darwinian theory, and evolutionary biology. Grant, Peter and Rosemary: Biologists whose long-term research focuses on finches in the Galapagos Islands, and the evolutionary impact of climatic and environmental changes on their populations. They live part of the year in the Islands, and have received honors for their work since they began in Greene, Mott: A historian of science who has written extensively about the development of geological thought during the 19th and early 20th centuries, including the development of the theory of continental drift.
When present in the atmosphere, these gases contribute to the greenhouse effect, trapping heat near the surface of the planet.
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On Earth, the main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and some halocarbon compounds. It would produce attributes beneficial to a group in competition with other groups rather than attributes beneficial to individuals. Haeckel, Ernst: A German biologist who lived from , Haeckel was the first to divide animals into protozoan unicellular and metazoan multicellular forms. His notion of recapitulation is no longer accepted. Haile Selassie, Yohannes: A paleoanthropologist who, while doing field work in Ethiopia for his doctoral dissertation at the University of California, Berkeley, discovered Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba , a bipedal hominid dated at 5.
For example, the half-life of carbon is 5, years. Hamilton, W. He was also interested in the evolutionary impact of parasites as the key to many outstanding problems left by Darwin, including the baffling riddle of the evolution of sex. This led him to extensive work in computer simulations. In normally diploid organisms such as humans, only the gametes are haploid. It is the multi-locus analog of an allele. Hardy-Weinberg principle: In population genetics, the idea that if a population experienced no selection, no mutation , no migration, no genetic drift , and random mating, then the frequency of each allele and the frequencies of genotype in the population would remain the same from one generation to the next.
Hardy-Weinberg ratio: The ratio of genotype frequencies that evolve when mating is random and neither selection nor drift are operating.
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For two alleles A and a with frequencies p and q, there are three genotypes: AA, Aa, and aa. It is the starting point for much of the theory of population genetics.
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Harvey, Ralph: A geologist whose work includes the study of geological processes at a range of scales, from the smallest nanometer to broader-scale interpretations of the history experienced by geological materials. Many of them are toxic. Narrowly, it is defined as the proportion of variation more strictly, variance in a phenotypic character in a population that is due to individual genetic differences that will be inherited in the offspring. Herrnstein, Richard J.
He has primarily done research on human and animal motivational and learning processes. His books include Psychology and I.
Compare with homogametic. Compare with homozygote. See also heterozygote. Hill, Andrew: A paleontologist and professor at Yale University. His work with Mary Leakey's team at Laeotoli, Tanzania, in the s helped lead to the discovery of the fossilized footprints of early hominids and other mammals.
His current research interests include hominid evolution, paleoecology, and taphonomy. Homeoboxes code for a protein "homeodomain," a protein domain that binds to DNA, and can regulate the expression of other genes. These homeodomain motifs are involved in orchestrating the development of a wide range of organisms. There are at least 24 homeobox genes, some but not all of which are also homeotic in their effect.
In general, "homeotic" genes are genes that control the identity of body parts. They are active in the early stages of embryonic development of organisms. Some, but not all, homeotic genes are homeobox genes. They lay out the head to tail body pattern in very early embryos. The Hox genes are very ancient and widely shared among bilateral animals. After the head to tail pattern is established, homeotic genes direct the developmental fates of particular groups of cells.
For example, in the mutation called "antennapedia" in the fruit fly, a foot grows in the antennal socket. Compare with heterogametic. For example, the bones that support a bat's wing are similar to those of a human arm. Compare with analogy. Some molecular biologists, when comparing two sequences, call the corresponding sites "homologous" if they have the same nucleotide, regardless of whether the similarity is evolutionarily shared from a common ancestor or convergent.
They likewise talk about percent homology between the two sequences. Homology in this context simply means similarity. This usage is frowned upon by many evolutionary biologists, but is established in much of the molecular literature. Also sometimes applied to larger genetic entities, such as a whole chromosome; a homozygote is then an individual having two copies of the same chromosome.
See also homozygote. Homo erectus : A species of hominid that lived between 1. Homo habilis : A species of hominid that lived between 1. Homo neanderthalensis : A species of hominid that lived between , and 30, years ago in Europe and Western Asia, originally thought to be a geographic variant of Homo sapiens but now generally accepted to be a distinct species. Homo sapiens : Modern humans, which evolved to their present form about , years ago.
Twenty-five species of only one genus , Equisteum , remain today, whereas many different species, some the size of modern trees, were abundant in ancient swamps. Along with lycophytes and ferns, horsetails were among the first terrestrial plants to appear. Ho overturned an earlier conventional assumption that the HIV virus remains dormant for up to 10 years in a person before its outbreak into AIDS.
His recognition that the virus is active right from the beginning of infection led him to initiate the deployment of a combination of drugs to overpower the virus. Huxley, Thomas Henry: British intellect, photographer, and contemporary of Darwin. He was the first to apply the theory of natural selection to humanity to explain the course of human evolution.
In order to be considered scientific, a hypothesis must be falsifiable, which means that it can be proven to be incorrect.
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It has been historically influential in classification. The interspersed non-coding parts, which are not translated, are called introns; the coding parts are called exons.
Sometimes inversions are visible in the structure of the chromosomes. IQ: An abbreviation of "intelligence quotient," usually defined as the mental age of an individual as measured by standardized tests divided by his or her real age and multiplied by This formulation establishes the average IQ as The usefulness and reliability of IQ as a measure of intelligence has been questioned, in part because of the difficulty of devising standardized tests that are free of cultural biases.